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Posts Tagged ‘Applied Behavioral Strategies’
Hi and Welcome to What Works Wednesday! where the focus is usually the description of a successful case story. The general public is slowly beginning to learn and appreciate the fact ABA works. However, in an ongoing comprehensive ABA program for individuals, more than just good ABA is required. Parent and professional collaboration is an essential ingredient. In ABA teams at Applied Behavioral Strategies, the BCBAs work to ensure that every case has 4 hours of parent-professional contact at a minimum each month. Collaboration occurs in a variety of contexts.
In a comprehensive program, it is important for the team to meet frequently to guarantee that the team is implementing programs correctly and that programs are modified so that the child will continue to make progress. In most cases, the team meets twice per month for 2 hours. The first order of business at every meeting: parent concerns. The team includes all therapists, the supervisor (BCBA), the parents, and other outside professionals.
Clinic/Team Meeting Notes
During the team meetings, detailed notes are taken so that team members may review them before therapy. Everyone receives a copy of the notes, including the parents. The notes are also placed in the child’s program book so they are handy for team members.
In cases where the child receives therapy in a setting where the parent is not present, therapists and supervisors keep a detailed communication log that is sent home with the child each day. These logs keep the parents informed about the child’s day and serves as another way to build cohesive team communication.
Supervisors at Applied Behavioral Strategies make themselves available by phone. Supervisors are extremely busy but a great time to return calls is between appointments when driving from place to place (don’t forget to use your headset!). Parents, if you need to speak to your supervisor, let him/her know so that time can be made for the call.
Finally, email is another way to remain in close contact with parents. Emails can be returned at any time of day; especially when talking by phone is not possible. Emails also provide a written record of your requests and decision making.
In summary, professionals be diligent to ensure parent-professional collaboration. Parents, do not be timid. Partner with your BCBA and team to help propel your child’s progress to its maximum potential.
- Show Me The Data! – or not (appliedbehavioralstrategies.wordpress.com)
- The Very Busy BCBA(appliedbehavioralstrategies.wordpress.com)
Posted in Ask Missy Monday, Ethical Issues, tagged Applied Behavior Analysis, Applied Behavioral Strategies, BCBA, Behavior Analysis, Data collection, ethical issues, ethical issues for behavior analysts, Ethics, Missy Mondays on January 28, 2013| 6 Comments »
Hi and welcome to Ask Missy Mondays where I respond to a question from readers. Today’s question was posted on a list serve for parents and family members of individuals with autism. The mom wrote,
“As far as data collection, I hear about the BCBA doing it but I have never seen it nor heard specific results. I requested the data and the BCBA told me that as an outside consultant she is not allowed to provide it.“
Having taught a course on Ethics and Professional Issues for behavior analysts, and in addition to offering on-going coursework related to ethical issues for Board Certified Behavior Analysts, hearing things like this really upsets me.
Guideline 2.0 Responsibility to Client
The Behavior Analyst Certifying Board (BACB) has developed a set of Guidelines that BCBAs and BCaBAs must follow. These guidelines are called the Guidelines for Responsible Conduct and they may be viewed here. One of the guidelines states that “the behavior analyst has the responsibility to operate in the best interest of the client“. When the client is a minor or incapacitated (i.e., unable to make decisions for him/her self), the client’s parents or guardians become the client.
In the case above, the BCBA is claiming that her responsibility lies with the school district who is paying her salary. Unfortunately, the school district is a third-party payer. While the BCBA has responsibilities to her employer, those responsibilities cannot override her primary responsibility to the client. In fact, the guidelines address this issues.
Guideline 2.05 Third Party Requests for Services
This guideline has two parts. First the guideline states that “When a behavior analyst agrees to provide services to a person or entity at the request of a third-party, the behavior analyst clarifies to the extent feasible, at the outset of the service, the nature of the relationship with each party. This clarification includes the role of the behavior analyst (such as therapist, organizational consultant, or expert witness), the probable uses of the services provided or the information obtained, and the fact that there may be limits to confidentiality.”
The guidelines go on to state that “If there is a foreseeable risk of the behavior analyst being called upon to perform conflicting roles because of the involvement of a third party, the behavior analyst clarifies the nature and direction of his or her responsibilities, keeps all parties appropriately informed as matters develop, and resolves the situation in accordance with these Guidelines.”
So, while the district is paying for the services, the client is the child and his/her guardian. When he client requests their data, the behavior analyst must make those data available.
- A Behavior Analyst’s New Year Resolutions (appliedbehavioralstrategies.wordpress.com)
- The ethics of mobile data collection (matt-welsh.blogspot.com)
- My Supervisor Told Me To Do It (appliedbehavioralstrategies.wordpress.com)
Here at Applied Behavioral Strategies, the mission is to improve the quality of life through effective intervention. One way we hope to do that is by reviewing research articles for our readers. Today’s research review continues the discussion this week on using principles of ABA to address ADHD. See Monday’s post and Tuesday’s post for additional information.
Researchers from a variety of institutions collaborated to author “Peer Tutoring for Children with ADHD: Effects on Classroom Behavior and Academic Performance“. Authors included: George DuPaul, Ruth Ervin, Christine Hook, and Kara McGoey. The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) published the study. Readers may download the entire article here.
Children with ADHD need two types of intervention. First, teachers and parents must provide reinforcement for appropriate behaviors and research has shown this to be effective. However, reinforcement alone is not enough. Teachers and parents must also concurrently address academic behaviors. One method for addressing academic behaviors is peer tutoring. Peer tutoring consists of two or more students working together on an activity with one student providing assistance, instruction, and feedback to the other. Various models of peer tutoring have been studied by great educational researchers such as Charlie Greenwood and Doug and Lynn Fuchs.
ClassWide Peer Tutoring
One model of peer tutoring is Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT). Classwide Peer Tutoring is an evidence based instructional practice based on principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (e.g., prompting, reinforcement, modeling). In CWPT, students work together in pairs taking turns tutoring each other. Students address skills that have been previously taught by their teacher. The teacher also develops appropriate teaching materials for the students to use. This approach provides students with more opportunities for asking questions and getting answers.
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of CWPT on the task engagement, activity level, and academic performance of children with ADHD and children without ADHD.
Participants. Eighteen students with ADHD who were not taking medication participated in the study. Children ranged between 6 and 10 years of age. Additionally, 10 comparison children participated in the study. These children were matched to the other children on age, gender, and class (i.e., in the same class as one of the targeted students).
Measures. Researchers measured classroom behavior (on task, off task, and fidgety) using a 15-second partial interval recording. Researchers also measured academic performance using teacher-developed pre- and post-tests each week. Finally, researchers also measured social validity by asking teachers and students to rate the intervention at the end of the study.
Design. Researchers used an ABAB (or reversal) design to determine intervention effectiveness. In this design, researchers measure behaviors with no intervention. Then they measure behaviors during intervention. Then the intervention is terminated while researchers continue to measure behaviors. And finally, the intervention is reinstated while behaviors continue to be measured.
Study Validity. The researchers took two additional steps to measure the validity of the study. First, they monitored accuracy of implementation using fidelity checks. Second, the researchers measured inter-observer agreement to ensure that data collection was consistent and accurate.
During baseline, students with ADHD were on-task about 29% of the intervals. This increased to 80% of intervals during intervention. When the intervention stopped, this behavior decreased down to an average of 21% of intervals but when the intervention was reinstated, it increased again to 83%. Changes in fidgety behavior were observed in some but not all students. It is important to note that even without intervention, the occurrence of fidgety behaviors was low (i.e. 6% of intervals). Pre-and Post-test scores improved with intervention for almost half of the students with ADHD. Finally, the intervention received high marks of satisfaction across both teachers and students.
In the discussion section of the paper, the authors note how the results of their study compared to the results of studies on stimulant medication. Essentially, effective instructional practices work just as well as medication without all the side effects. The authors also noted that anecdotal data suggested that student engagement increased as well. Use of stimulant medication does not necessarily result in increased engagement. Interestingly, the comparison peers also showed improvements in on-task behaviors and academic performance.
Readers, do any of your children engage in CWPT? Behavior analysts, is this an intervention that you teach others to use in classrooms? Teachers, how difficult is it to implement CWPT in your class?
- Small Group Instruction (kindergartenkiddos.com)
- 9 Ways Students Can Host Peer Tutoring Sessions Online (freetech4teachers.com)
We recently received the call for proposals for the upcoming conference in Dubai. If you will recall, we went last year and had a wonderful experience. The upcoming conference is going to focus on behavior analysis. We are super excited to submit something and we hope that our colleagues will as well. Here is the call for abstracts. Please share it with your colleagues! Due date extended to November 15th.