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Posts Tagged ‘RTI’

Our FREE journal club met on Monday night. We discussed Fallagant & Pence 2017. You may access the article here or here.

The introduction to the paper consisted of a nice review of some of the work done to date in this area. The authors discussed why the Preschool Life Skills are so essential. 

The authors also discussed using a Response to Intervention (RTI) model for teaching these skills. You can learn more about RTI here or here. Essentially, in Tier 1, skills would be taught to a larger group or entire class. In Tier 2, small group instruction would be provided to the students who didn’t acquire the skills in Tier 1. Then in Tier 3, 1:1 instruction would occur for the students who didn’t learn the skills in Tier 1 or Tier 2.

The research was scientifically sound in terms of demonstrating experimental control. The authors used a multiple baseline across behaviors and then replicated that over 6 students. Like most research, a few flaws existed. For example, by using a multiple baseline across behaviors, experimenters lose a little bit of experimental control when the student demonstrates response generalization to an untrained behavior.

The participants in the study may have come from a convenience sample which was most likely a university affiliated preschool program. Each of the special education teachers in the school held master’s degrees in special education. The assistant teachers all held bachelor degrees.

The data in the study consisted of measuring the life skills being taught: responding to name, requesting/manding adult attention, requesting/manding adult assistance, delay tolerance, denial tolerance, and independent versus prompted responses. The authors indicated they also collected data on challenging behaviors but those data were not presented in the paper. The authors also reported high IOA data as well as high fidelity data (which is not always reported).

The authors provided a great description of the modifications provided to students who did not acquire the skills in Tier 1, 2, or 3. For these students, this included the use of an AAC device (i.e., proloquo).

One of our big discussion points occured around the author’s use of least to most prompting during Tier 1. We discussed if the results would have been different had they used most to least prompting and decided this should be a point of focus in a future study!

Another area of discussion for us revolved around the authors’ use of only 8 trials per session. This hardly seemed like enough practice for a preschooler, let alone a pre-k student with disabilities (the children had autism, Down syndrome, or DD).

We discussed, and the authors mentioned, the use of AAC and whether the students would have acquired the skills in Tier 1 had the AAC been available during that phase of instruction.

We also discussed the lack of preference assessments and whether the authors’ use of social reinforcement may have been potent enough to reinforce skill acquisition.

And finally, we discussed the limited generalization observed to peers. Some of the kids generalized skills to the adults who are obviously more skilled than the peers. But we also discussed the fact that with such few learning trials (N=8), that the kids may not have developed fluency in the skills thereby limiting their ability to readily generalize the skills. And of course, the authors mentioned that they did not program for generalization so this may have impacted generalization as well.

Bottom line, these seem to be some essential skills that we could easily teach in classrooms to increase the social skills of students.

I have identified a few extra resources. First because of all the tolerance discussion, we should look at some of the original tolerance studies. The following studies utilized FCT combined with Tolerance training.

  1. Bird, F., Dores, A. P, Moniz, D., Robinson, J. (1989). Reducing severe aggressive and self-injurious behaviors with functional communication training. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 94, 37-48.
  2. Brown, K. A., Wacker, D. P., Derby, K. M., Peck, S. M., Richman, D. M., Sasso, G. M., Knutson, C. L., & Harding, J. W. (2000). Evaluating the effects of functional communication training on brief functional analyses of aberrant behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 53-71.
  3. Carr, E. G., & Carlson, J. I. (1993). Reduction of severe behavior problems in the community using a multicomponent treatment approach. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 157-172. 
  4. Day, M. H., Horner, R. H., O’Neil, R. E. (1994). Multiple functions of problem behaviors: Assessment and intervention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 279-289.
  5. Fisher, W. W., Thompson, R. H., Hagopian, L. P., Bowman, L. G., & Krug, A. (2000).  Facilitating toleraance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training. Behavior Modification, 24(1), 3-29.
  6. Hagopian, L. P., Wilson, D., & Wilder, D. (2001). Assessment and treatment of problem behavior maintained by escape from attention and access to tangibles. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 229-232.
  7. Harding, J., Wacker, D. P., Berg, W. K., Barretto, A., & Ringdahl, J. (2005).  Evaluation of relations between specific antecedent stimuli and self-injury during functional analysis conditions.  American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110(3), 205-215.
  8. McConnachie, G., & Carr, E. G. (1997). The effects of child behavior problems on the maintenance of intervention fidelity. Behavior Modification, 21, 123-158.
  9. Symons, F. J., Fox, N. D., & Thompson, T. (1998). Functional communication training and naltrexone treatment of self-injurious behavior: An experimental case report. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 11, 273-292.

And here are some extra resources on Preschool Life Skills

  1. Hanley et al 2007
  2. Luczynksi & Hanly (2013)
  3. Luczynski, Hanley, & Rodriguez (2014)
  4. Beaulieu, Hanley, & Roberson 2012
  5. Beaulieu, Hanley, & Roberson 2013
  6. Hanley, Fahmie, & Heal 2014 (in headstart)
  7. Francisco & Hanley (2012)
  8. Robison, Mann, & Ingvarsson (in press)
  9. Dogan et al 2017 (training parents)
  10. Halfdanardottier, Sveinbjornsdottir & Ingvarsson (in process but looking at life skills in older students)
  11. Ala’i-Rosales et al 2018
  12. Fahmie & Luczynski 2018 (review of studies)

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The field of special education and behavior analysis lost a great man last week. Stan Deno, Ph.D. served on faculty in the College of Education and Human Development at The University of Minnesota (commonly referreStan Denod to as The U) from 1970 (or so) until he retired in 2009. During that time, Stan developed a framework for monitoring student progress towards their academic goals. His work in Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) is the foundation for DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills; Good & Kiminski, 2002) which has been used in thousands of schools across the country.

Stan also trained many students including undergraduate, masters level, and doctoral level. Two of his students, Doug and Lynn Fuchs, have led the way in developing Response to Intervention (RTI) an evidence-based approach to identifying students with learning disabilities and behavior disorders.

If you don’t know Stan or haven’t read his work, you should make time to do so. Without a doubt, his work has influenced the way we monitor progress in schools and the way we address instruction for students with learning and behavioral needs.

I have many fond memories of Stan. I feel so lucky to have studied with him during my time at The U. He worked diligently to help me slow down when I spoke (I talk fast and southern and it was difficult for him to understand me). He also modeled for me the act of thinking carefully before speaking. If you know me, you know I still am working on this skill!

Stan trusted me to serve as his Teaching Assistant (TA) in the Intro to ABA class. He taught me how to teach adult learners and how to give meaningful feedback on their written work. During this time, he also taught me the importance of technology in the classroom to increase graduate student participation and responding. I am a much better teacher now because of Stan.

I took several classes from Stan. The most memorable included the course on Single Subject Design. In this course, Stan introduced me to the work of Alan Kazdin and he taught me to conduct experimentally sou
nd research studies as well as how to read research and interpret and apply it in my own work. His influence enabled me to write successful grants, publish my own science, and go on to teach my own students. Stan also served on my dissertation committee where he modeled for me how to help students improve their research ideas, study procedures, and how to interpret results accurately. I was so fortunate to learn so much from him.

In addition to our love of research, behavior analysis, and helping students learn, Stan and I both shared the diagnosis of cancer. I received my diagnosis in 2002 some time after he received his diagnosis and treatment. I stopped by the U to visit Stan while I was in town later that same year. We shared how hard living as a survivor can be and we shared how crushing the diagnosis can be. It was then that Stan shared with me the theory of the Sword of Damocles. It took some time for me to truly understand this concept as a new survivor. But oh do I understand it now, 14 years later.

My heart sank to my stomach last week when I learned of Stan’s passing. But, I have joy in knowing how much he taught me and how much he has taught the special education world. Stan will be missed.

The family asks that in lieu of flowers contributions be made in memory of Stanley Deno to: “Stan Deno CBM Research” fund #20003 at the University of Minnesota Foundation.

Online gifts can be made at:  www.give.umn.edu/giveto/standeno

Or mail this giving form to:

University of Minnesota Foundation
P.O. Box 860266
Minneapolis, MN 55486-0266

 

References

Good, R.H., & Kkaminski, R.A. (2002). Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (6th ed.). Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement. Available: http://dibels.uoregon.edu.

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